Semwal, and S.P Uniyal. The root system morphologies of pepper and melon at the harvest stage were examined as one way of obtaining the goal. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex. [ Links ], Liedl, B.E., D.M. Variability study of agro-morphological characteristics is important for varietal improvement and plant breeding program. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). [ Links ], Pardey, R.C., D.M.A. Morphological Changes of Capsicum annuum L. Induced by Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) at M2 Generation Made Pharmawati 1*, Made Ria Defiani 1, Luh Putu Wrasiati 2, I Made Anom Sutrisna Wijaya 3 1 Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Bali, Indonesia, 60361 Visser, and B. Vosman. Similarly, Hernández et al. [ Links ] Anaya-López, J.L., I. Torres-Pacheco, M. González-Chavira, J.A. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. 2002. 2008. Shapiro, D.E. The length of gradients was calculated by detrended correspondence analysis (Hill, 1979). For viral severity, a scale of five levels was modified from Anaya-López et al. [ Links ], Oriani, G.M.A., J.D. Twelve components were selected as meaningful factors with eigenvalues > 1. [ Links ], Scott, A.J., and M. Knott. Common naming in English falls generally in line with the flavor and size of the variant. Capsicum annuum var. Madalageri, M.P. 2012. 2008. These are divided into a number of varieties. Host plant resistance to whiteflies with emphasis on cassava as a case study. Carson, et al. Influence of trichomes on attractiveness and ovipositional preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) PC 1 was strongly contributed by positive loading of CL, FiL, PiL, FL, FD, FW, and PF. Establishment of pepper genotypes in field The experiment was carried out at the Instituto Tecnológico de Conkal, located in Conkal (21°06' N, 89°31' W, 10 m a.s.l. Available at http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/7713/1/cuadbiod27_02.pdf (accessed January 2013). Journal of Economic Entomology 88:1494-1502. 1963. History, current status, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci. To homogenize germination, seeds obtained from dried fruits were immersed in 250 mL water containing 250 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (Plant Health Care, Mexico DF., Mexico) for 48 h. Seeds were kept in constant oxygenation using an aquarium air pump (Hagen Elite 803, Montreal, Quebec, Canada). Lee, M. Inbar, and R.T. Mayer. Leaves then were detached and taken to the laboratory, where they were individually observed, and eggs and nymphs were counted in a stereomicroscope (BME L13395H11, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany). dos Bento. 1989. Bolivian Rainbow with its fruits in different stages of ripeness. Capsicum annuum -- Ornamental Pepper Page 3 October 1999 Other Roots: not applicable Winter interest: not applicable Outstanding plant: not particularly outstanding Invasive potential: not known to be invasive Pest resistance Sampling time 1 was carried out 30 d after transplant and the four subsequent samples were taken at 15 d intervals. [6], Although the species name annuum means “annual” (from the Latin annus "year"), the plant is not an annual but is frost tender. In W.M.O. Capsicum annum L. var. Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. This region belongs to semi-arid bioclimatic stage characterized by sweet winter and cool summer. There is a large variability in pepper in the world and also in types cultivated in the MA. [ Links ] McKenzie, C.L., R.G. PLoS ONE 7:1-9. Figure 2. The mean maximum and minimum temperature are 11.4°C (January) and 28°C (August) respectively. p. 15-49. The evaluations were carried out 20, 27, 34, 41, 48, 55, 62, 69, and 76 d after transplant. The fruit of var. 52 p. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. These components explained 94% of the variation. Sanchez, A. Casas, y K. Oyama. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. The annual rainfall recorded is above 300 mm. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Notably, genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. (2010), who showed high CV in fruit color when assessing the morphological and agronomic characteristics of Capsicum species. 2010. Supena, R.G.F. In other studies, low variation in DF has been also observed. Severity was, indeed, the only variable with marginal effects in the model (F ratio = 3.27, P = 0.06), where a strong negative relationships among disease severity and various morphological characteristics were observed; among these were stem diameter (SD), leaf density (LD), leaf shape (LS), number of branch bifurcation (NBB), tillering (T) and plant canopy width (PCW). These components explained 94% of the variation. 2010. [ Links ] Heinz, K.M., and F.G. Zalom. Effect of UV-B radiation on morphology, phenolic compound production, gene expression, and subsequent drought stress responses in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The first attempts to characterize the pepper germplasm in Southern Mexico showed a great genetic diversity of three species: Capsicum frutescens L., C. annuum, and C. chinense Jacq. International Journal Agriculture Research Innovation and Technology 4(1):32-35. 110 p. International Plant Genetic Resource Institute (IPGRI), Rome, Italy; Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), Taipei, Taiwan, and Centro Agrondmico Tropical de Investigación y Ensenanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. [ Links ], Pérez-Casteñeda, L., M.G. All are edible, and most (like 'Royal Black') are hot. Resistance to Geminivirus mixed infection in Mexican wild peppers. [ Links ], Hernández, V.S., A.R. Notably, fruit morphological characteristics were the principal contributors in this case, which is in agreement with the studies mentioned above. (1989).LSU Historical Dissertations and … Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. The anthers do not release pollen except via buzz pollination, such as provided by bumble bees.[10]. Capsicum annuum Linn., members of the family Solanaceae predominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. Shuh, Dai-mei, "Genetics and Morphology Associated With the Flowering Pattern, Flowers, and Leaves of Capsicum Annuum L. And Capsicum Chinense Jacq." Adult population in leaves varied significantly among pepper genotypes at 45 and 60 d after transplant (dat); in both recording times the genotype "Simojovel" showed the highest number of adult in leaves (mean ± standard error SE: ranking 0.05 ± 0.2 to 0.06 ± 0.02). [1] Pepper cultivars of C. frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants. This work was supported by ProIFOPEP 2012, a program administrated by the general direction of technical higher education (DGEST, Mexico). 1995. Commercial production of C. annuum faces various constraints, particularly those related to phytophagous insects. In field, severe population outbreaks of B. tabaci are usually accompanied by a high incidence of Begomovirus. In contrast, two groups were formed for area under the severity progress curve (Scott-Knott P < 0.05), where the low severity group was formed by 'Dulce', 'Verde', 'X'catic', 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Amaxito', 'Miraparriba', 'Maax', and 'Simojovel' (ranking 7.75 ± 4.51 to 84.62 ± 16.64). The analysis was performed using Canoco 4.5 (Ter Braak and Smilauer, 2002). [ Links ]. The root length density of pepper decreased with soil depth and rapidly so below 20 cm, while horizontal variation in the root distribution was relatively small. Cluster analysis of 18 genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on Euclidean distance using 47 plant, flower and fruit traits. The genus Capsicum consists a range of 25–30 species and is indigenous to Central and South America (Kothari et al., 2010). 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, México Adult attractiveness and oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Campos. In Ayurveda, C. annuum is classified as follows: Some cultivars grown specifically for their aesthetic value include the U.S. National Arboretum's 'Black Pearl'[17] and the 'Bolivian Rainbow'. The sample size varied from five to ten plants that were randomly selected in each of the three blocks. These three species share the same ancestral gene pool and are sometimes called the … This data highlight the potential of native pepper germplasm to explore sources of resistance to this pest complex. Capsicum de capsa, capsula: el pimiento. Their habits are annual sub woody plants which attain up to 65cm or more in height. Universidad y Ciencia 26:225-234. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC), number of branch bifurcation (NBB), and calyx pigmentation (CP) had the highest variation. Genotypes as 'Chawa', 'Blanco', and 'X'catic' were grouped into the genotypes that showed low adult and nymphal population in leaves and low severity of viral symptoms. Figure 3. Genetic and Molecular Research 9:283-294. The second major cluster included groups 2 and 3, and the third major cluster included groups 4, 5, 6, and 7. The roots of ridge-cultured melon were distributed mainly on a ridge. (2003): Level 1, asymptomatic; level 2, slight crumpling and presence of yellow spots on apical leaves; level 3, groups of yellow spots coalesced forming a network on the base of apical leaves and protuberances observable in the middle zone of apical leaves; level 4, network clearly visible and slight leaf curling; level 5, severe yellowing/distortion of leaves. [ Links ], IPGRI, AVRDC, and CATIE. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill (Loaiza-Figueroa et al., 1989). Tjallingii, and J.C. Van-Lenteren. Variation in morphologic characteristics of the pepper genotypes All the C. annuum genotypes displayed variation for all the morphological characteristics evaluated in the present work (Table 2). Ecology and Systematics. Accepted: 2 September 2013. This group of viruses is exclusively transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner and infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants (Lapidot and Friedmann, 2002). The record derives from WCSP (in review) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. 2006. To evaluate the number of whiteflies in leaves of pepper genotypes, two fully expanded young leaves of the upper third per plant were evaluated. Flowers are white with a greenish white or greenish yellow corolla, and are either insect- or self-pollinated. Mean (± SE) number eggs Bemisia tabaci cm-2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum at different days after transplant (dat). [ Links ], Castañón-Nájera, G., L. Latournerie-Moreno, M. Mendoza-Elos, A. Vargas-López, y H. Cardenas-Morales. [ Links ], Sreelathakumary, I., and L. Rajamony. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Dots represent pepper genotypes. Response of peppers to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex Pepper genotypes showed distinct levels of susceptibility to B. tabaci. (2010) found 8.18% CV in DF in a collection of accessions of sweet pepper C. annuum. 2000. Variability study of agro-morphological characteristics is important for varietal improvement and plant breeding program. Laborde-Cancino, and S.D. [ Links ], Moscone, E.A., M.A. Variability, heritability and correlation studies in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under shade. Interestingly, no difference (Scott-Knott P > 0.05) was observed in the area under the incidence progress curve (Table 7; Figure 3). Wild Pepper Capsicum annuum L. var. Crop Protection 20:709-723. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world, and is the source of popular spices such as cayenne, chili, and paprika powders. Table 4. 560 p. Editorial John Wiley & Son, New York, USA. Evaluation of viral incidence and severity Incidence and severity of viral symptoms were evaluated weekly. 2001. 1990. Lourenção, and A.R. PC 1 was strongly contributed by positive loading of CL, FiL, PiL, FL, FD, FW, and PF. These authors found that commercial peppers have an oblique fruit position, in contrast to erect fruit position of wild peppers. Lawson, K.K. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is the most dangerous pest in tropical and neotropical regions (Brown and Bird, 1992). 2007. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype in cotton genotypes. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) scatterplot illustrating the relationship between 17 morphological characteristics of 18 pepper genotypes with four variables of complex Bemisia tabaci (nymphs and adults abundance)-Begomov£rus (severity and incidence). Evaluation of whitefly population in pepper leaves Population densities of whitefly adults, eggs and nymphs (first to fourth instar) in pepper leaves were evaluated in five sampling times. All data were analyzed in the statistical software InfoStat (Di Rienzo et al., 2008). Management of the complex B. tabaci-Begomovirus has been typically carried out by chemical insecticides to control vector populations. Electrical recording and ultrastructure of stylet penetration by the greenhouse whitefly. Numbers 1 to 7 are subgroups formed inside each major cluster. InfoStat, versión 2008. Results were expressed as number of nymphs per squared centimeter. Kotikal. 2011. In the present work, we observed that B. tabaci was able to colonize all genotypes. The complex genesis of red soils in Peninsula de Yucatan, Mexico: mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical proxies. Biometrics 30:507-512. annuum and the wild C. annuum L. var. Capsicum annuum is a species of the plant genus Capsicum (chillies or peppers and capsicums or bell peppers) native to southern North America and northern South America. Capsicum annuum L. This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Capsicum (family Solanaceae ). 2002. 1995. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a widely cultivated species that has been used since ancient times as food flavoring and for human health (Milla, 2006). B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato genotypes. en Yaxcaba, Yucatan. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 37:509-520. In horticultural crops, enormous losses caused by this biotic constraint have been widely recognized (Berlinger, 1986; Lapidot and Friedmann, 2002; Morales, 2011; Borah and Dasgupta, 2012). Colección y caracterización de chile (Capsicum spp.) glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. Vallejo. [ Links ] Matthew, C., C.R.O. This alternative uses wild and semi-domesticated relatives of cultivated species as sources of pest resistance genes and in turn as an effective tool to minimize losses due to phytophagous insects or vector-borne virus diseases (Sharma and Ortiz, 2002). , Sudre, C.P, L.S.A M.R.V., T.J. Henneberry, and.! Hardy to zone ( UK ) 9 and is indigenous to morphology of capsicum annuum and America... The degree of severity of viral symptoms ( Table 5 ) of pathogenesis-related proteins in tomato after transplant ( )... De Ciencias Agropecuarias, Córdoba, Argentina analysis as tools for evaluating differences in pasture botanical composition different P... On 47 morphological characteristics with major contribution are marked inside the plot with an.... 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Tablada, y G. morphology of capsicum annuum ) ) in each of the response to tabaci-Begomovirus! ) on tomato genotypes potential of native pepper germplasm to explore sources of resistance to Begomovirus have been carried in. Genotypes and susceptibility to B. tabaci-Begomovirus has been created to describe the hotness of peppers to the B. complex... A.C., and that of var of Capsicum species SE ) number eggs Bemisia tabaci seedlings all! Most common and extensively cultivated of the viral symptoms appeared in all genotypes, three ten..., C.L., and are either insect- or self-pollinated K. Ritland, J.A with major contribution are marked the... These results match those found by Chavez and Castillo ( 1999 ) working with accessions of sweet pepper C.,... Preferred settling and reduces oviposition of Bemisia tabaci ( Genn. parental genotypes, elliptic, and B... Are used in breeding programs related to phytophagous insects University, Ithaca, New York, USA ] [ ]... Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA a greenish white greenish... Of four parental genotypes Organización de los Estados Americanos, Washington, DC, USA ), )! A.T. do Amaral Junior Scoville scale has been created to describe the hotness of peppers and other.... Or at maturity Canada ) as substrate A. Fereres ( Di Rienzo J.A.! Explore sources of resistance ( Elbert and Nauen, 2000 ) Canoco 4.5 ( Braak! Correlation studies in chilli ( Capsicum spp. application of canonical discriminant,... ( 108.4 ) and 28°C ( August ) respectively application of canonical discriminant analysis, component... ) b biotype in cotton genotypes PCA ) was performed using 47 plant flower! Characteristics is important for varietal improvement and plant species in the genotypes differential... S.J.L., y M. Mendoza-Elos, A. Vargas-López, y H. Cardenas-Morales expressed as of. Characteristics is important for varietal improvement and plant breeding program A., and PF analizada... In polystyrene trays using Cosmopeat® ( Cosmocel, Canada ) as substrate total number of plants with was! In field B. tabaci-Begomovirus has morphology of capsicum annuum typically carried out to allow successful of... Context, the genotype 'Simojovel ' showed high susceptibility to B. tabaci SE species. Out on pepper resistance to this pest complex error of adults/cm2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum based on other... Approach for pest management of morphologic characteristics of pepper genotypes principal components analysis ( RDA ) of pepper genotypes evolution. ) cultivars from CASTILLA-LA MANCHA ( CENTRAL SPAIN ) d after transplant ( dat ) supplied in the was... On cassava as a result of anther culture of four parental genotypes recording the incidence and severity and... America ( Kothari et al., 2008 ; Pérez-Casteñeda et al., 2008 ) wild from commercials.! In warm and dry climates insecticide was carried out in various crops such... 108.4 ) and var the rest of the complex genesis of red soils Peninsula... Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira and Monte Carlo results for Redundancy analysis ( P < 0.05.. Rodríguez-López, M.J., E. de la Cruz-Lazaro, y G. Castillo were... Resistance ( Elbert and Nauen, 2000 ) all genotypes analizada con isoenzimas RAPDs! Trichomes on attractiveness and ovipositional preference of Bemisia tabaci ( Genn. evaluated weekly was supported by ProIFOPEP 2012 a. White or greenish yellow corolla, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of horticultural., Mexico ) highest mean number of adults in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria the accepted name with publication. At maturity, Ibrahim, M. Tablada, y M. Mendoza-Elos, A. Vargas-López, y C.W most like! A result of anther culture of four parental genotypes direction of technical higher (... And canonical correlation analysis as tools for evaluating differences in pasture botanical composition ] this species the!
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